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Research Papers and Articles, Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback is a fascinating area that is focused on changing cortical timing. That in turn has significant implications to brain function.

Here’s a list of links to some of the better research and articles related to neurofeedback and cortical regulation. Neurofeedback trains cortical regulation. The article on neuroplasticity from Ruth Lanius. MD is one of the best papers in helping explain the functional implications. Her paper in full is “Mind over Chatter”, an FMRI based study on network changes observed after neurofeedback training.

There are a number of good research papers.   A challenge for the field is to take a complex arena and make it simple. Reading a few research studies offers a narrow lens into the field.  Reading more diverse studies helps.   But the issues of changing cortical dynamics through neurofeedback and biofeedback apply to the average teacher, psychologist, therapist, pediatrician.  Many don’t have a connection to that information and it takes time for that to change. .

We also included studies on musical performance amd microSurgery performance improvements by Dr. John Gruzelier from Imperial College, London. In many respects, all training we do in neurofeedback is performance training.  Improving cortical dynamics (timing patterns) affects ability to regulate emotion, attention, executive function and other performance systems in the brain.
Though many of the studies show targeting of conditions, neurofeedback does not directly target conditions.  What’s in common is training the brain to elicit change based on response to feedback using neuroplasticity, which is summed up by Dr. Lanius in the NeuroImage study listed below.

Resource Books/Text Books
In addition to the papers and articles below, these books a much more in-depth understanding of neurofeedback and brain mapping.

Neurofeedback and Neuromodulation Techniques and Applications  Coben (Editor), James R. Evans (Editor)

Quantitative EEG, Event-Related Potentials and Neurotherapy Kropotov
Technical Foundations of Neurofeedback, T. Collura.

Research Papers


Neurofeedback training induces changes in white and gray matter. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2013 Oct;44(4):265-72.

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after
EEG neurofeedback.   Neuroimage. 2013 Jan 15;65:324-35
This Ruth Lanius, MD study is stellar. Basic but incontrovertible. Very good new paper on FMRI, neuroplasticity and neurofeedback from the journal NeuroImage.

Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks and subjective wellbeing by EEG neurofeedback.  Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2014 Aug;130(2):123-36   The first FMRI study on PTSD and neurofeedback by Lanius.

The Immediate Effects of EEG Neurofeedback on Cortical Excitability and Synchronization.  European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 31, pp. 770–778, 2010.  Excellent additional study exhibiting the effect of neurofeedback on neuroplasticity by changing cortical excitability.


The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Dec;27(4):231-49.  100 children

In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. 2014 Mar;133(3):483-92.

American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for ADHD using Evidence based Interventions

Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents.  Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 Sep 2;10:1645-54.  Theta/Beta Cz

Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Arns

Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency.  Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Dec 23;8:1019.

Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial.  J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;50(7):780-9.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):3-20.

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: specific event-related potential findings of a randomized controlled trial.  Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 May;122(5):942-50

Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.  Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;20(9):481-91.

Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks.  Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 Jul;44:183-94.

 Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports   BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 10;12:    107 children, Norway

Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized
controlled trial with six-month follow-up  Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):12-21.   13 children Spain


Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency.  Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Dec 23;8:1019.

 An exploratory study on the effects of tele-neurofeedback and tele-biofeedback on objective and subjective sleep in patients with primary insomnia.   Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2010 Jun;35(2):125-34

Neural dynamics necessary and sufficient for transition into pre-sleep induced by EEG neurofeedback.   Neuroimage. 2014 Aug 15;97:19-28.   Alpha Theta 2014

Enhancing sleep quality and memory in insomnia using instrumental sensorimotor rhythm conditioning.                Biol Psychol. 2014 Jan;95:126-34.

The treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback: a replication study. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):223-35. Hauri, Mayo Clinic

Depression Anxiety

Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.  Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jan 19. pii: S0925-4927(16)30026-9.

A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder  – Spain, impressive change in working memory 2014

Effect of a psychoneurotherapy on brain electromagnetic tomography in individuals with major depressive disorder   Psychiatry Res. 2009 Dec 30;174(3):231-9

Real-Time Self-Regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression  PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38115.  FMRI study

A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD, positive findings in treatment. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2016 Jan 19.

Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective   disorders.Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23, vii.

Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting for depression and anxiety.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Mar;40(1):17-24.

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Oct 12. Reduction in Anxiety symptoms

Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.   Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Dec;40(4):257-68.


Neurorehabilitation of social dysfunctions: a model-based neurofeedback approach for low and high-functioning autism  Pineda, Front Neuroeng. 2014 Aug 7;7:29

Neurofeedback training produces normalization in behavioural and electrophysiological measures of high-functioning autism.  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Apr 28;369.  Pineda, UC San Diego

Assessment-Guided Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder  J of Neurotherapy, 2007 Vol. 11(1) 5-19

Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2 (2008) 557–581  Pineda, UC San Diego

Qeeg-guided neurofeedback:  new Brain-Based individualized evaluation and treatment for Autism

An article from  Autism Science Digest Issue 03

Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2014 Dec.) 39(3-4):237-57

Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 4 (2010) 386-399

Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 3 (2009) 145-162

Other: Mental Retardation, Learning Disability

Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: a clinical case series of behavioral problems. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010 Jan;41(1):32-41.

EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Jul;34(3):145-52.

WECHSLER (WISC-R) Changes following treatment of Learning Disabilities via EEG Biofeedback Training in a private practice Setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1991, Vol 43, 147-153..


Foundation and Practice of Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Epilepsy  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):21-35
(A review of the neurophysiology and neurofeedback literature by the founding neuroscientist.  The explanation of the mechanisms linking the EEG and neurofeedback is not specific to seizures).


An Assessment of an Automated EEG Biofeedback System for Attention Deficits in a Substance Use Disorders Residential Treatment Setting Rapgay, UCLA 2014

Effects of an EEG Biofeedback Protocol on a Mixed Substance Abusing Population  Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2005;31(3):455-69.

Neurofeedback Effects on Evoked and Induced EEG Gamma Band Reactivity to Drug-related Cues in Cocaine Addiction   J Neurother. 2010 July ; 14(3): 195–216

IQ, Migraines, OCD

Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study.  Behav Brain Funct. 2010 Feb 2;6:9.

Effects of Neurofeedback on Memory of Migraine Patient: J Neurol Neurophysiol 2012, 3:5

QEEG-guided neurofeedback for recurrent migraine headaches.  Clin EEG Neurosci. 2011 Jan;42(1):59-61.

Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a case series.  Clin EEG Neurosci. 2011 Jul;42(3):195-201.

Performance and Memory

Neurofeedback training with a motor imagery-based BCI: neurocognitive improvements and EEG changes in the elderly.  Med Biol Eng Comput. 2016 Feb 23.

Working memory training using EEG neurofeedback in normal young adults.  Biomed Mater Eng. 2014 Jan 1;24(6):3637-44.

Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.  J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015 Dec;37(6):626-36.

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance  International Journal of Psychophysiology 47 (2003) 75–85

Ecological validity of neurofeedback: modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 1;14(9):1221-4.

Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback  BMC Neuroscience 2009, 10:87

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance.  Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Jan;47(1):75-85.

Effect of beta and gamma neurofeedback on memory and intelligence in the elderly  Biol Psychol 2014 Jan; 95; 74-85

Pain:   New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain.  J Pain. 2008 Mar;9(3):193-9.

Neurofeedback Treatment for Pain Associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I  Journal of Neurotherapy: Investigations in Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience.  Volume 11, Issue 1, 2007

Parkinsons:   Neurofeedback and physical balance in Parkinson’s patients.  Gait Posture. 2014 May;40(1):177-81.

Concussions:  Efficacy of QEEG and Neurofeedback in the Assessment and Treatment of Post Concussive Syndrome: A Clinical Case Series  – an unpublished study. Surmali, Neuropsychiatrist, 2012

ISNR* Comprehensive List of studies

(*International Society of Neurofeedback and Research.)