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Neurofeedback Research

Research Papers and Articles

Neurofeedback is an evidence-based technology. This means that it is validated by research that has been conducted, peer-reviewed and published by reputable scientists and scientific organizations. Neurofeedback has a more than 50-year history of research both in North America and around the world.

We have sorted through hundreds of studies to compile the following list for those who are interested in delving more deeply into the numerous applications of neurofeedback.

Though many of the studies were designed to target a particular condition, neurofeedback does not directly target conditions. Instead, it elicits change in a variety of brain-based conditions by harnessing the brain’s capacity to change itself when it is not operating properly. This is known as neuroplasticity.

Resource Books/Textbooks

In addition to the papers and articles below, these books offer a much more in-depth understanding of neurofeedback and brain mapping.

A Symphony in the Brain (Robbins) (Written for the general public) HIGHLY RECOMMENDED READING FOR ALL for a thorough overview of the history of neurofeedback as well as its applications.

Neurofeedback and Neuromodulation Techniques and Applications
(Editor), James R. Evans(Editor)

Quantitative EEG, Event-Related Potentials and Neurotherapy

Technical Foundations of Neurofeedback,
T. Collura.

A comprehensive bibliography of research from the International Society for Neurofeedback and
Research (ISNR)

Research Papers


Neurofeedback training induces changes in white and gray matter. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2013 Oct;44(4):265-72.

The main objective of this structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to investigate, using diffusion tensor imaging, whether a neurofeedback training  (NFT) protocol designed to improve sustained attention might induce structural changes in white matter (WM) pathways, purportedly implicated in this cognitive ability.

CONCLUSION:After 50 years of research in the field of neurofeedback, this study constitutes the first empirical demonstration that NFT can lead to microstructural changes in white and gray matter.

Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks and subjective wellbeing by EEG neurofeedback. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2014 Aug;130(2):123-36

A study investigating whether a single session of neurofeedback training aimed at the voluntary reduction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) amplitude would be related to differences in EEG network oscillations, functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity, and subjective measures of state anxiety and arousal in a group of individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

CONCLUSION:  Our study represents a first step in elucidating the potential neurobehavioural mechanisms mediating the effects of neurofeedback treatment on regulatory systems in PTSD. Moreover, it documents for the first time a spontaneous EEG ‘rebound’ after neurofeedback, pointing to homeostatic/compensatory mechanisms operating in the brain.

Endogenous control of waking brain rhythms induces neuroplasticity in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 31, pp. 770–778, 2010

This study explores the possibility of noninvasively inducing long-term changes in human corticomotor excitability by means of a brain-computer interface, which enables users to exert internal control over the cortical rhythms recorded from the scalp.

CONCLUSION:  Our observations may have important implications for therapies of brain disorders associated with abnormal cortical rhythms, and support the use of electroencephalogram-based neurofeedback as a noninvasive tool for establishing a causal link between rhythmic cortical activities and their functions.
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The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.> Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Dec;27(4):231-49.

One hundred children, ages 6-19, who were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), either inattentive or combined types, participated in a study examining the effects of Ritalin, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD.

CONCLUSION:  The results of a Quantitative Electroencephalographic Scanning Process (QEEG-Scan; V. J. Monastra et al., 1999) revealed significant reduction in cortical slowing only in patients who had received EEG biofeedback. Behavioral measures indicated that parenting style exerted a significant moderating effect on the expression of behavioral symptoms at home but not at school.

In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. 2014 Mar;133(3):483-92.

One hundred four children were randomly assigned to receive neurofeedback, CT, or a control condition and were evaluated 6 months post-intervention.

CONCLUSION:  Neurofeedback participants made more prompt and greater improvements in ADHD symptoms, which were sustained at the 6-month follow-up, than did CT participants or those in the control group. This finding suggests that neurofeedback is a promising attention training treatment for children with ADHD.

Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents.  Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 Sep 2;10:1645-54.

Self-evaluations of neurofeedback treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD.

CONCLUSION:  The self-reported improvements in ADHD core symptoms and school performance shortly after treatment indicate NF treatment being promising in comparison with medication, suggesting NF as an alternative treatment for children and adolescents who do not respond to MPH, or who suffer side effects.

Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Arns, Clin EEG Neurosci. 2009 Jul;40(3):180-9.

In this study selected research on neurofeedback treatment for ADHD was collected and a meta-analysis was performed.

CONCLUSION:  Neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.

Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Dec 23;8:1019.

In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N = 19) to a control group (N = 28) and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such as Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), Sleep Duration (DUR) and overall reported sleep problems (PSQI) and if there is an association between sleep-parameters and ADHD symptoms.

CONCLUSION:  These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD.

Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial.  J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;50(7):780-9.

Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback in children with ADHD in a multisite randomised controlled study using a computerised attention skills training as a control condition.

CONCLUSION:  Superiority of the combined NF training indicates clinical efficacy of NF in children with ADHD. Future studies should further address the specificity of effects and how to optimise the benefit of NF as treatment module for ADHD.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):3-20.

Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were undertaken to measure the effect of neurofeedback training (NFT), in AD/HD children, on the neural substrates of selective attention and response inhibition.

CONCLUSION:  Suggests that NFT has the capacity to functionally normalize the brain systems mediating selective attention and response inhibition in AD/HD children.

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: specific event-related potential findings of a randomized controlled trial.  Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 May;122(5):942-50

Children with ADHD either completed a NF training or a computerized attention skills training (ratio 3:2)

CONCLUSION:  CNV effects reflect neuronal circuits underlying resource allocation during cognitive preparation. These distinct ERP effects are closely related to a successful NF training in children with ADHD. In future studies, neurophysiological recordings could help to optimize and individualize NF training.

Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;20(9):481-91.

This study addresses those methodological shortcomings by comparing the effects of the following two matched biofeedback training variants on the primary symptoms of ADHD: EEG neurofeedback (NF) aiming at theta/beta ratio reduction and EMG biofeedback (BF) aiming at forehead muscle relaxation.

CONCLUSION:  The results indicate that NF effectively reduced inattention symptoms on parent rating scales and reaction time in neuropsychological tests. However, regarding hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms, the results imply that non-specific factors, such as behavioural contingencies, self-efficacy, structured learning environment and feed-forward processes, may also contribute to the positive behavioural effects induced by neurofeedback training.

Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks.  Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 Jul;44:183-94.

An overview of the history and current status of neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD and insomnia.

CONCLUSION:  Clinical trials investigating new treatments in ADHD should include assessments at follow-up as their primary endpoint rather than assessments at outtake. Furthermore, an implication requiring further study is that neurofeedback could be stopped when SOI is normalized, which might result in fewer sessions.

Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports  BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 10;12:

A randomized and controlled clinical study to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF) to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.

CONCLUSION:  Neurofeedback produced a significant improvement in the core symptoms of ADHD, which was equivalent to the effects produced by MPH, based on parental reports. This supports the use of NF as an alternative therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD.

Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized

controlled trial with six-month follow-up Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):12-21.

A randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of Neurofeedback compared to standard pharmacological intervention in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

CONCLUSION:  Two-month and six-month follow-up assessments, based on parent and teacher reports, showed that participants receiving NF maintain their improvements months after completing the training.
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Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Dec 23;8:1019.

Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.

CONCLUSION:  Clinically, TBR and SMR neurofeedback had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD.

An exploratory study on the effects of tele-neurofeedback and tele-biofeedback on objective and subjective sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2010 Jun;35(2):125-34

Insomnia is a sleeping disorder, usually studied from a behavioural perspective, with a focus on somatic and cognitive arousal. Recent studies have suggested that an impairment of information processes due to the presence of cortical hyperarousal might interfere with normal sleep onset and/or consolidation.

CONCLUSION:  Clinically, TBR and SMR neurofeedback had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD.

Neural dynamics necessary and sufficient for transition into pre-sleep induced by EEG neurofeedback. Neuroimage. 2014 Aug 15;97:19-28.

EEG theta/alpha neurofeedback was used to rapidly induce the transition into pre-sleep and simultaneous fMRI to reveal state-dependent neural activity.

CONCLUSION:  Our findings portray multi-level neural dynamics underlying the mental transition from awake to pre-sleep. To initiate the transition, decreased activity was required in external monitoring regions, and to sustain the transition, opposition between the anterior and posterior parts of the salience network was needed, reflecting shifting from extra- to intrapersonal based processing, respectively.

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2011 Dec;36(4):251-64.

The objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia.

CONCLUSION:   Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol.

Enhancing sleep quality and memory in insomnia using instrumental sensorimotor rhythm conditioning.  Biol Psychol. 2014 Jan;95:126-34.

Pilot study testing whether instrumental conditioning of SMR during wakefulness can enhance sleep and cognitive performance in insomnia.

CONCLUSION:  Although results are promising it has to be concluded that current results are of a preliminary nature and await further proof before SMR-training can be promoted as a non-pharmacological approach for improving sleep quality and memory performance.

The treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback: a replication study. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):223-35. Hauri, Mayo Clinic

To replicate a previous study, 16 psychophysiological insomniacs were randomly assigned to either Theta feedback or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback.

CONCLUSION:  According to evaluations at the sleep laboratory, tense and anxious insomniacs benefited only from Theta feedback but not from SMR feedback, while those who were relaxed at intake but still could not sleep benefited only from SMR but not from Theta feedback.
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Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.  Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jan 19. pii: S0925-4927(16)30026-9.

Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain’s salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD.

CONCLUSION:  Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD.

A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder

This study aims to investigate whether neurofeedback (NF) training can improve working memory (WM) performance in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

CONCLUSION:  A positive correlation was found for the NF group between the improvement in processing speed and the increase of beta power at both the sensor and brain source level. These results show the effectiveness of this NF protocol in improving WM performance in patients with MDD.

Effect of a psychoneurotherapy on brain electromagnetic tomography in individuals with major depressive disorder  Psychiatry Res. 2009 Dec 30;174(3):231-9

Study to measuring the effect of a psychoneurotherapy on brain source generators of abnormal EEG activity in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD).

CONCLUSION:  After treatment, only participants who successfully normalized EEG activity in cortico-limbic/paralimbic regions could be considered in clinical remission. In these regions, significant correlations were found between the percentage of change of depressive symptoms and the percentage of reduction in high-beta activity. These results suggest that the normalization of high-beta activity in cortico-limbic/paralimbic regions can be associated with a significant reduction of depressive symptoms.

Real-Time Self-Regulation of Emotion Networks in Patients with Depression PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38115. Feasibility of a new brain self-regulation technique that integrates psychological and neurobiological approaches through neurofeedback with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

CONCLUSION:  In a proof-of-concept study, eight patients with depression learned to upregulate brain areas involved in the generation of positive emotions (such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and insula) during four neurofeedback sessions. Their clinical symptoms, as assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), improved significantly. A control group that underwent a training procedure with the same cognitive strategies but without neurofeedback did not improve clinically.

A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD, positive findings in treatment. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2016 Jan 19.

Study representing a “proof-of-concept” pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD.

CONCLUSION:  We found that neurofeedback significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale scores averaged 69.14 at baseline to 49.26 at termination), and preceded gains in affect regulation (Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities-Affect Dysregulation scores averaged 23.63 at baseline to 17.20 at termination). We discuss a roadmap for future research.

Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23, vii.

A robust body of neurophysiologic research is reviewed on functional brain abnormalities associated with depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

CONCLUSION:  A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns. It has been associated with minimal side effects and is less invasive than other methods for addressing biologic brain disorders.

Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting for depression and anxiety.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Mar;40(1):17-24.

A study investigating the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study.

CONCLUSION:  The study demonstrates the potential of neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders.

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Oct 12.

A study designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes’ HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem.

CONCLUSION:  Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn’t receive any intervention.  During the randomized controlled trial, the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group, but not for the control group.

Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Dec;40(4):257-68.

Randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms.

CONCLUSION:   Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms.
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Neurorehabilitation of social dysfunctions: a model-based neurofeedback approach for low and high-functioning autism  Pineda, Front Neuroeng. 2014 Aug 7;7:29

A preliminary yet promising observations to support the hypothesis that neurofeedback training (NFT) in combination with a new behavioral intervention, TAGteach, is a viable treatment option not only for high-functioning but also for low-functioning children with ASD.

CONCLUSION:  There are few research studies including children on the lower end of the autism spectrum, which creates poor treatment options for this population. In this review we present TAGteach in combination with NFT as a promising alternative that may be suitable for low functioning children on the spectrum.

Neurofeedback training produces normalization in behavioural and electrophysiological measures of high-functioning autism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Apr 28;369. Pineda, UC San Diego Neurofeedback training (NFT), based on operant conditioning of the electroencephalogram (EEG), has shown promise in addressing abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity.

CONCLUSION:  The results showed improvements in ASD subjects but not in TDs. This suggests that induction of neuroplastic changes via NFT can normalize dysfunctional mirroring networks in children with autism, but the benefits are different for TD brains.

Assessment-Guided Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder  Journal of Neurotherapy 11(1):5-23 · June 2007

Research reviewing the epidemiology of Autism (Medical Research Council, 2001) indicated that approximately 60 per 10,000 children (1/166) are diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

CONCLUSION:  Evidence from multiple measures has demonstrated that neurofeedback can be an effective treatment for ASD. In this population, a crucial factor in explaining improved clinical outcomes in the experimental group may be the use of assessment-guided neurofeedback to reduce cerebral hyperconnectivity.

Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2 (2008) 557–581 Pineda, UC San Diego

Two electrophysiological studies testing the hypothesis that operant conditioning of mu rhythms via neurofeedback training can renormalize mu suppression, an index of mirror neuron activity, and improve behavior in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

CONCLUSION:  The results showed decreases in amplitude but increases in phase coherence in mu rhythms and normalization of mu rhythm suppression in experimental participants compared to placebo.

Qeeg-Guided Neurofeedback: New Brain-Based Individualized Evaluation and Treatment for Autism Autism Science Digest: The Journal of Autismone, Issue 03, December 2011

The goal of neurofeedback with ASD is to correct amplitude abnormalities and balance brain functioning, while coherence neurofeedback aims to improve the connectivity and plasticity between brain regions.

CONCLUSION:  In this paper, they provide an overview of the science behind the process, a theoretical platform, and an outline of the benefits this treatment can offer to the many children who have attention deficit or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2010) 35:83–105

Neurofeedback is a noninvasive approach shown to enhance neuroregulation and metabolic function in ASD.

CONCLUSION:  Neurofeedback is a noninvasive approach shown to enhance neuroregulation and metabolic function in ASD. We present a review of the literature on the application of Neurofeedback to the multiple problems associated with ASD. Directions for future research are discussed.

Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2014 Dec.) 39(3-4):237-57

In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes.

CONCLUSION:  Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control WTL group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the WTL group.

Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 4 (2010) 386-399

Reduction of theta power is assumed to reflect modulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is known to be involved in social and executive dysfunctions in autism.

CONCLUSION:  The reduction of theta power is assumed to reflect modulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is known to be involved in social and executive dysfunctions in autism.

Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 3 (2009) 145-162

Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions.

CONCLUSION:  These findings suggest a basic executive function impairment in ASD that can be alleviated through specific neurofeedback treatment. Possible neural mechanisms that may underlie neurofeedback mediated improvement in executive functioning in autistic children are discussed.

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Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities

Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: a clinical case series of behavioral problems. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010 Jan;41(1):32-41.

Positive clinical effects of Neurofeedback (NF) applied to children with Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) and other forms of mental retardation.

CONCLUSION:  This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of NF treatment in mental retardation. The results of this study encourage further research.

EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Jul;34(3):145-52.

On one hand, Learning Disabled (LD) children have higher values of theta EEG absolute and relative power than normal children, and on the other hand, it has been shown that minimum alpha absolute power is necessary for adequate performance.

CONCLUSION:  There was significant improvement in WISC performance in the experimental group that was not observed in the control group. EEG absolute power decreased in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the experimental group. Control children only showed a decrease in relative power in the delta band. All changes observed in the experimental group and not observed in the control group indicate better cognitive performance and the presence of greater EEG maturation in the experimental group, which suggests that changes were due not only to development but also to NFB treatment.

WECHSLER (WISC-R) Changes following treatment of Learning Disabilities via EEG Biofeedback Training in a private practice Setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1991, Vol 43, 147-153.

EEG biofeedback trained increases in activation (increased amplitude of 14 Hz brainwave energy) of the central and sensorimotor cortex’s neural activation network resulted in increases in bihemispheric skills (complementary verbal‐expressive and visual‐motor abilities).

CONCLUSION:  Brainwave signatures and WISC‐R profiles “normalised” as a result of training with significant remediation of learning disorders.
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Foundation and Practice of Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Epilepsy Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2006 Mar;31(1):21-35

A review of the neurophysiology and neurofeedback literature by the founding neuroscientist. The explanation of the mechanisms linking the EEG and neurofeedback is not specific to seizures.

CONCLUSION:  We conclude that the research literature reviewed in this article justifies the assertion that neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy/seizure disorders constitutes a well-founded and viable alternative to anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy.
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Substance Abuse/Addiction

An Assessment of an Automated EEG Biofeedback System for Attention Deficits in a Substance Use Disorders Residential Treatment Setting Rapgay, UCLA 2014

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an automated electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback system in recovering illicit substance users who had attention deficits upon admission to a comprehensive residential treatment facility.

CONCLUSION:  The results demonstrate that automated neurofeedback can effectively improve attention in recovering illicit substance users in the context of a comprehensive residential substance abuse treatment facility.

Effects of an EEG Biofeedback Protocol on a Mixed Substance Abusing Population  Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2005;31(3):455-69. T

his study examined whether an EEG biofeedback protocol could improve outcome measures for a mixed substance abusing inpatient population.

CONCLUSION:  This protocol enhanced treatment retention, variables of attention, and abstinence rates one year following treatment.

Neurofeedback Effects on Evoked and Induced EEG Gamma Band Reactivity to Drug-related Cues in Cocaine Addiction  J Neurother. 2010 July ; 14(3): 195–216

This study emphasizes the utility of cognitive neuroscience methods based on EEG gamma band measures for the assessment of the functional outcomes of neurofeedback-based biobehavioral interventions for cocaine use disorders.

CONCLUSION:   The results confirmed our prediction that EEG changes achieved with neurofeedback training will be accompanied by positive EEG outcomes in a cue reactivity and clinical improvements.

EEG Biofeedback used with Treatment of Crack Cocaine Dependence with the Homeless 2005, Journal of Neuotherapy, Vol. 9(2) 2005

Most research with alpha-theta EEG biofeedback has addressed alcohol addiction. Cocaine is now considered to be the most common drug problem of patients entering treatment for drug abuse.

CONCLUSION:  The present study did not result in significant differences between control and experimental groups on attentional or personality variables in crack cocaine addicts. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
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Migraine Headaches

Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study. Behav Brain Funct. 2010 Feb 2;6:9.

Two newer forms of neurobiofeedback, EEG biofeedback and hemoencephalography biofeedback were combined with thermal hand warming biofeedback to treat 37 migraineurs in a clinical outpatient setting.

CONCLUSION:  All combined neuro and biofeedback interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of migraines with clients using medication resulting in a more favorable outcome (70% experiencing at least a 50% reduction in headaches) than just medications alone (50% experience a 50% reduction) and that the effect size of our study involving three different types of biofeedback for migraine (1.09) was more robust than effect size of combined studies on thermal biofeedback alone for migraine (.5).

Effects of Neurofeedback on Memory of Migraine Patient: J Neurol Neurophysiol 2012, 3:5

The effect of neurofeedback on memory of migraine patients.

CONCLUSION:  According to the researcher’s view, migraine patients are able to control

QEEG-guided neurofeedback for recurrent migraine headaches. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2011 Jan;42(1):59-61.

Patients with recurrent migraine headaches completed a quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) procedure.

CONCLUSION:  QEEG-guided neurofeedback appears to be dramatically effective in abolishing or significantly reducing headache frequency in patients with recurrent migraine.
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Obsessive compulsive disorder and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a case series. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2011 Jul;42(3):195-201.

Clinical effects in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

CONCLUSION:    This study provides good evidence for the efficacy of NF treatment in OCD. The results of this study encourage further controlled research in this area.
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Performance and Memory

Neurofeedback training with a motor imagery-based BCI: neurocognitive improvements and EEG changes in the elderly.  Med Biol Eng Comput. 2016 Feb 23.

Neurofeedback training (NFT) has shown to be promising and useful to rehabilitate cognitive functions. Recently, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) were used to restore brain plasticity by inducing brain activity with an NFT.

CONCLUSION:  Results from cognitive tests showed significant improvements (p < 0.01) in four cognitive functions after performing five NFT sessions: visuospatial, oral language, memory, and intellectual. This established evidence in the association between NFT performed by a MI-BCI and enhanced cognitive performance. Therefore, it could be a novel approach to help elderly people.

Working memory training using EEG neurofeedback in normal young adults.  Biomed Mater Eng. 2014 Jan 1;24(6):3637-44.

Recent studies have shown that working memory (WM) performance can be improved by intensive and adaptive computerized training. Here, we explored the WM training effect using Electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback (NF) in normal young adults.

CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrated that these normal young adults succeeded in improving their WM performance with EEG NF, and the pre- and post-test evaluations also indicated that WM performance increase in experimental group was significantly greater than control groups. In summary, our findings provided preliminarily evidence that WM performance can be improved through learned regulation of the EEG power ratio using EEG NF.

Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015 Dec;37(6):626-36.

This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance.

CONCLUSION:  Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance International Journal of Psychophysiology 47 (2003) 75–85

The use of neurofeedback as an operant conditioning paradigm has disclosed that participants are able to gain some control over particular aspects of their electroencephalogram (EEG).

CONCLUSION:  Suggests that normal healthy individuals can learn to increase a specific component of their EEG activity, and that such enhanced activity may facilitate semantic processing in a working memory task and to a lesser extent focused attention. We discuss possible mechanisms that could mediate such effects and indicate a number of directions for future research.

Ecological validity of neurofeedback: modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 1;14(9):1221-4.

Biofeedback-assisted modulation of electrocortical activity has been established to have intrinsic clinical benefits and has been shown to improve cognitive performance in healthy humans.

CONCLUSION:  In a pilot study, single-blind expert ratings documented improvements in musical performance in a student group that received training on attention and relaxation related neurofeedback protocols, and improvements were highly correlated with learning to progressively raise theta (5-8 Hz) over alpha (8-11 Hz) band amplitudes. These findings were replicated in a second experiment where an alpha/theta training group displayed significant performance enhancement not found with other neurofeedback training protocols or in alternative interventions, including the widely applied Alexander technique.

Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback  BMC Neuroscience 2009, 10:87

By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance. Here we assessed whether two distinct EEG neurofeedback protocols could develop surgical skill, given the important role this skill plays in medicine.

CONCLUSION:  This study to shows extensive evidence for performance enhancement in microsurgical procedure by means of EEG self-regulation.

The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Jan;47(1):75-85.

The use of neurofeedback as an operant conditioning paradigm has disclosed that participants are able to gain some control over particular aspects of their electroencephalogram (EEG).

CONCLUSION:  Normal healthy individuals can learn to increase a specific component of their EEG activity, and that such enhanced activity may facilitate semantic processing in a working memory task and to a lesser extent focused attention. We discuss possible mechanisms that could mediate such effects and indicate a number of directions for future research.

Effect of beta and gamma neurofeedback on memory and intelligence in the elderly Biol Psychol 2014 Jan; 95; 74-85

Recent studies have shown that gamma and beta neurofeedback improves aspects of cognitive control and memory in young adults.

CONCLUSION:  Participants trained on gamma and participants trained on beta neurofeedback showed enhanced beta activity.
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New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain.  J Pain. 2008 Mar;9(3):193-9.

Preliminary evidence suggests the possibility that the experience of chronic pain is linked to cortical activity as assessed via an electroencephalogram.

CONCLUSION:  Although a direct causal link between experience of pain and brain activity as measured by EEG has not been established, the targeting of pain treatment at a cortical level by trying to affect EEG rhythms directly is an intriguing possibility.

Neurofeedback Treatment for Pain Associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Journal of Neurotherapy: Investigations in Neuromodulation, Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience. Volume 11, Issue 1, 2007

The current study sought to address the need for more information about the effects of neurofeedback on pain in persons with chronic pain by (1) determining the average decrease in pain in patients with CRPS-I following neurofeedback training, (2) identifying the percent of patients reporting pain decreases that are clinically meaningful, and (3) documenting other benefits of neurofeedback training.

CONCLUSION:  The findings suggest that many patients who receive neurofeedback training report significant and substantial short-term reductions in their experience of pain, as well as improvements in a number of other pain- and nonpain-specific symptoms.
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Parkinson’s Disease

Neurofeedback and physical balance in Parkinson’s patients. Gait Posture. 2014 May;40(1):177-81.

A study of the effect of a neurofeedback training (NFT) period on balance problems associated with Parkinson’s disease.

CONCLUSION:  The results revealed that, after neurofeedback training, a statistically significant improvement in both static and dynamic balance in the experimental group was achieved.  The results suggest that NFT can improve static and dynamic balance in PD patients.
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The Usefulness of Quantitative EEG (QEEG) and Neurotherapy in the Assessment and Treatment of Post-Concussion Syndrome

Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with damage to frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Post-concussion syndrome has been used to describe a range of residual symptoms that persist 12 months or more after the injury.

CONCLUSION:  The core deficits of post-concussion syndrome are similar to those of ADHD and mood disorders, and sufferers often report memory, socialization problems and frequent headaches. While cognitive rehabilitation and psychological support are widely used, neither has been shown to be effective in redressing the core deficits of post-concussion syndrome. On the other hand, quantitative EEG has been shown to be highly sensitive (96%) in identifying post-concussion syndrome, and neurotherapy has been shown in a number of studies to be effective in significantly improving or redressing the symptoms of post-concussion syndrome, as well as improving similar symptoms in non-TBI patients.

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