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Abstracts from a Major Child and Adolescent Medical Journal Special Issue on Emerging Technologies

Excerpt from editorial in the journal:

“… virtually all the EEG biofeedback research has demonstrated what three recent fMRI studies have replicated… we are able to use real-time information about brain function to alter and enhance that function.”

“… which suggests that neurofeedback… is applicable to functional brain disorders… ”

Laurence Hirshberg, Ph.D. Brown Medical School
Sufen Chiu, MD, Ph.D. Dept of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Univ. of California – Davis
Jean Frazier, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):125-36, vii.

(NOTE: This journal is a very well respected medical journal in its area. This was a special edition of the journal in 2005).

Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents.

Trudeau DL.

Neurofeedback treatment for addictions in adults is probably efficacious, and several reported approaches are described with their indications. Neurofeedback is promising as a treatment modality for adolescents, especially those with stimulant abuse and attention and conduct problems. It is attractive as a medication-free, neurophysiologic, and self-actualizing treatment for a substance-based, brain-impaired and self-defeating disorder. More research, beginning with case reporting, is needed to assess use and efficacy in adolescents.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19, v.

Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective.

Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA.

Electroencephalogram biofeedback (EBF), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) are emerging interventions that attempt to directly impact brain function through neurostimulation and neurofeedback mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of each of these techniques, summarizes the relevant research findings, and examines the implications of this research for practice standards based on the guidelines for recommending evidence based treatments as developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). EEG biofeedback meets the “Clinical Guidelines” standard for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, depression, and traumatic brain injury. VNS meets this same standard for treatment of refractory epilepsy and meets the lower “Options” standard for several other disorders. rTMS meets the standard for “Clinical Guidelines” for bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Several conditions are discussed regarding the use of evidence based thinking related to these emerging interventions and future directions.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):55-82, vi.

Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation.

Monastra VJ.

During the past three decades, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has emerged as a nonpharmacologic treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHDThis article presents the rationale for EEG biofeedback and examines the empirical support for this treatment using efficacy guidelines established by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation. Based on these guidelines, EEG biofeedback is considered to be “probably efficacious” for the treatment of ADHD and merits consideration as a treatment for patients who are stimulant “nonresponders.” Although research findings published to date indicate positive clinical response in approximately 75% of patients treated in controlled group studies, additional randomized, controlled trials are needed to provide a better estimate of the robustness of this treatment.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):163-76, viii.

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy.

Walker JE, Kozlowski GP.

With electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (or neurofeedback), it is possible to train the brain to de-emphasize rhythms that lead to generation and propagation of seizure and emphasize rhythms that make seizures less likely to occur. With recent improvements in quantitative EEG measurement and improved neurofeedback protocols, it has become possible in clinical practice to eliminate seizures or reduce the amount of medication required to control them (using neurofeedback). In this article, the history of neurofeedback for epilepsy is presented followed by discussions of the relevant neurophysiology of epilepsy. A model of how neurofeedback might raise the seizure threshold is then presented. Clinical experience using a quantitative EEG-guided approach is described, including a representative case study.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23, vii.

Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders.

Hammond DC.

A robust body of neurophysiologic research is reviewed on functional brain abnormalities associated with depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns. It has been associated with minimal side effects and is less invasive than other methods for addressing biologic brain disorders. Literature is reviewed on the use of neurofeedback with anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and with depression. Case examples are provided.

Link to Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic N Am.
> View the journal here

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